Glossary

This table provides cross references for all the key topics, The references include related terms (the “see also” column), alternative translations (the “see” column), and the corresponding words in Sanskrit, Pali and Tibetan where available.

Some terms may not return any results, either because they do not appear in any of the transcripts published so far or because we haven’t yet built the links.


A
SANSKRITPALITIBETANRELATED TERMSALTERNATE TRANSLATIONS

angerkrodha; dveshakodha; dosazhe sdanghatred
apparently truesamvritisatyasammuti-saccakun rdzob bden paultimately truerelative truth; conventional truth
attentionmanasikaramanasikarayid la byed pamindfulness, stability, restingmindfulness; awareness; samadhi; shamatha; jhana
attractionragaragadod chagsaversion, indifferenceattachment; greed
aversiondveshadosazhe sdanganger, attachment, indifferencehatred
awakening being codebodhisattva-shiksha byang chub sems kyi bslab byaindividual freedom code, direct awareness code, three codes 
awakening mindbodhicitta byang chub semsbodhicitta; enlightenment mind
awarenesssamprajanyasampajannashes bzhinmindfulness, stability, restingmindfulness; awareness; samadhi; shamatha; jhana

B
SANSKRITPALITIBETANRELATED TERMSALTERNATE TRANSLATIONS

balancesamatasamatamnyam nyidsameness
basis of all experiencealaya-vijnana kun bzhi rnam shesstorehouse consciousness
belief  yid cesfaith 
bodhisattvabodhisattvabodhisattabyang chub sems dpa’awakening being
buddha naturetathagata-garbha bde bzhin gshegs pa’i snying pooriginal enlightenment

C
SANSKRITPALITIBETANRELATED TERMSALTERNATE TRANSLATIONS

clarity  gsal baclear; clear light
codes, three  sdom gsumindividual freedom code, awakening being code, direct awareness code, moral discipline, vowethical codes
compassion karunakarunasnying rjeserving what is true 
conditions for practice, eightashta-kshana dal ba brgyadten factors for practicefreedoms, eight
conflict, four stages of  phrin las bzhifour enlightened activities; four wrathful activities
cosmology  ‘jig rten gnas tshulideology, modern, mythical  
cutting  gcodSeverance

D
SANSKRITPALITIBETANRELATED TERMSALTERNATE TRANSLATIONS

dakinidakini mkha’ mgro 
deathmaranamaranachi baimpermanence 
deity  yi damguru, deity, protectoryidam; tutelary deity; meditation deity
demonic obsessionMaraMarabdudcutting 
devotionadara; bhaktibhattigus paenergy 
dharmakayadharmakaya chos kyi skusambhogakaya, nirmanakaya, kayas threeDharma body
direct awarenessvidya rig pamahamudra, dzogchen 
direct awareness code  rig ‘dzin sdomindividual freedom code, awakening being code, direct awareness code 
distractionvikshepavikkhepag.yeng ba 
distractions, four   four immeasurables 
dzogchenmaha-ati rdzogs chenmahamudra, direct awarenessGreat Perfection

E
SANSKRITPALITIBETANRELATED TERMSALTERNATE TRANSLATIONS

ecstasysukhasukhabde baecstatic opening
eight conditions for practiceashta-kshana dal ba brgyadten factors for practicefreedoms, eight
eight worldly dharmasashta-laukika-dharmaattha-loka-dhamma‘jig-rten-pa’i chos-brgyadconventional successeight conventional concerns
elements, fivemahabhutamahabhutabyung ba 
emotional reactionskleshakilesanyon rmongsafflictions; defilements; reactive emotions
emptinessshunyatasunnyatagtong nyidshunyata
empty, clear, unrestricted  stong gsal ma gagsclarityunimpeded
ends, four  mtha’ bzhiimpermanence 
energyadhisthana byin brlobsdevotionblessings
energy transformationpranapanarlungsubtle energy
equanimityupekshaupekkhabtang snyoms 
evolutionvipaka-phalavipaka-phalalas rgyu ‘braskarma 
experience, actual and shared   world of experience, actual and shared
extremes, twodve antadve antamtha’ gnyisMiddle Way 

F
SANSKRITPALITIBETANRELATED TERMSALTERNATE TRANSLATIONS

factors for practice, tendasha-sampad ‘byor ba bcueight conditions for practicefavorable conditions, ten
faithshraddhasaddhadad pabeliefconfidence; trust
fearbhayabhaya‘jigs pa 
forces, fourcatur-bala thob bzhifour opponent powers; four R’s
foundations of mindfulness, foursmrty-upasthanasatipatthanadran pa nye bar gzhag pa bzhiapplications of mindfulness, four
four distractions   four immeasurables 
four forcescatur-bala thob bzhifour opponent powers; four R’s
four immeasurablesbrahma-viharasbrahma-viharastshad med pa bzhifour distractionsdivine abidings, four; higher emotions, four
four stages of conflict  phrin las bzhifour enlightened activities; four wrathful activities
four ways of working   ecstasy, insight, compassion, power 

G
SANSKRITPALITIBETANRELATED TERMSALTERNATE TRANSLATIONS

gates of freedom, threetri-vimoksha-mukha thar pa’i sgo gsummarks of existence, three
generositydanadanasbyin padana
genesishetuheturgyukarmacause
goodnesspunyapunnabsod namsmerit; good karma

I
SANSKRITPALITIBETANRELATED TERMSALTERNATE TRANSLATIONS

ideologymithya-drshtimicca-ditthilog lta 
ignoranceavidyaavijjhama rig padelusion
immeasurables, fourbrahma-viharasbrahma-viharastshad med pa bzhifour distractionsdivine abidings, four; higher emotions, four
impermanenceanityaaniccami rtag pathree marks of existence, death 
indifferencemohamohagti mugattraction, aversionstupidity; instinct
individual freedom codepratimokshapatimokkhaso so thar paindividual freedom code, awakening being code, direct awareness codeVows of Individual Liberation; monastic code
insightvipashyanavipassanalhag mthongvipashyana; looking
intentionchandachanda‘dun pawill, attentionmotivation

J
SANSKRITPALITIBETANRELATED TERMSALTERNATE TRANSLATIONS

jewels, threetriratnati-ratanadkon mchog gsumThree Treasures
joypramuditapamuditarab tu dga’ bacompassion, loving-kindness, equanimitysympathetic joy

K
SANSKRITPALITIBETANRELATED TERMSALTERNATE TRANSLATIONS

karmakarmakammalasgenesis, evolutionaction
kayas, threekaya skudharmakaya, sambhogakaya, nirmanakayaThree Bodies
knowingjnanananarig pa; shes paunderstanding, pristine awarenessgnosis; wisdom

L
SANSKRITPALITIBETANRELATED TERMSALTERNATE TRANSLATIONS

lineage  rgyud 
loving-kindnessmaitrimettabyams pametta

M
SANSKRITPALITIBETANRELATED TERMSALTERNATE TRANSLATIONS

mahamudramahamudra phyag rgya chen podzogchen, direct awarenessGreat Seal; resting in presence
MahayanaMahayana theg pa chen poGreat Way; Great Vehicle
marks of existence, threetrilaksanatilakkhanamtshan nyid gsumimpermanence, non-self, suffering, struggle, three gates of freedom 
Middle Waymadhyamaka; madhyama pratipad dbu maCentrism; Middle Way School
mind nature  sems kyi rang bzhin; sems nyidnature of mind; original mind
mind training  blo sbyong 
mindfulnesssmrtisatidran paawareness, attention, four foundations of mindfulness  
mindfulness, four foundations of smrty-upasthanasatipatthanadran pa nye bar gzhag pa bzhiprimary practice 
moral disciplineshilasilatshul khrimsthree codesmoral ethics; ethics; morality
mysteryguhya gsang basecret
mythic language   cosmology 

N
SANSKRITPALITIBETANRELATED TERMSALTERNATE TRANSLATIONS

nirmanakayanirmanakaya sprul skudharmakaya, sambhogakaya, three kayasemanation body; magically produced body
non-selfanatmananattabdag medsense of self, identityno-self

P
SANSKRITPALITIBETANRELATED TERMSALTERNATE TRANSLATIONS

peaceshantisantizhi ba 
perfection of wisdomprajnaparamita shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa 
perfections, sixparamitaparamipha rol tu phyin pa drugmoral discipline, working hard 
poisons, three  dug gsumattachment, aversion, ignorance 
power  dbangfour ways of working, ecstasy, insight, compassion 
presence  da lta nyid 
primary practice   four foundations of mindfulness 
pristine awarenessjnanananaye shesknowingwisdom, gnosis
probing presence    
protectorpala skyob paguru, deity, protector 
purificationdhauta vishodhanavisodhanasbyang pa 
purpose, method, effects, result    

R
SANSKRITPALITIBETANRELATED TERMSALTERNATE TRANSLATIONS

reactive patterns samskara, upadana, and vasanasankhara, upadana, vasanabag chags; ‘du byed; rnam rtogpatterns; habituated patterns; conditioning; attachment; underlying tendencies
realms, six  yul drug 
reflective meditationschinta bsamcontemplation; reflection; analytical meditation
refugesharanasaranaskyob pa 
remorsekaukrtya gyod paregret
restingshamathasamathazhi gnasstabilization; resting meditation; calming meditation; calm abiding

S
SANSKRITPALITIBETANRELATED TERMSALTERNATE TRANSLATIONS

sambhogakayasambhogakaya longs skudharmakaya, nirmanakaya, three kayasenjoyment body
samsarasamsarasamsarakhor bacyclic existence
self, sense ofatmanattabdagnon-self, identity 
serving what is true    compassion 
six perfectionsparamitaparamipha rol tu phyin pa drugmoral discipline, working hard 
six realms  yul drug 
skandhaskandhakhandhaphung pogroups; heaps; aggregates
spiritual teachergurugaru, gurubla maspiritual friend, kalyanamitraguru, lama, teacher
stabilityshamathasamathazhi gnasresting 
struggleduhkhadukkhasdug bsngalsuffering 
study, reflection, practicesruta-cinta-bhavanasuta-cinta-bhavanathos bsam sgomstudy, listen, reflect, practice, meditate
success, conventionalashta-loka-dharmaattha-loka-dhamma‘jig rten pa’i chos brgyadeight worldly dharmas 
sufferingduhkhadukkhasdug bsngalstruggleunsatisfactoriness; pervasive unsatisfactoriness; pain

T
SANSKRITPALITIBETANRELATED TERMSALTERNATE TRANSLATIONS

taking and sending  gtong len 
teacher student relationship    
ten factors for practicedasha-sampad ‘byor ba bcueight conditions for practicefavorable conditions, ten
TheravadaSthaviravadaTheravadatheg chung 
three codes  sdom gsumindividual freedom code, awakening being code, direct awareness code, moral discipline, vowethical codes
three gates of freedomtri-vimoksha-mukha thar pa’i sgo gsummarks of existence, three
three jewelstriratnati-ratanadkon mchog gsumThree Treasures
three kayaskaya skudharmakaya, sambhogakaya, nirmanakayaThree Bodies
three marks of existencetrilaksanatilakkhanamtshan nyid gsumimpermanence, non-self, suffering, struggle, three gates of freedom 
three poisons  dug gsumattachment, aversion, ignorance 
transmission  dbangdoes empowerment belong here?
two extremesdve antadve antamtha’ gnyisMiddle Way 

U
SANSKRITPALITIBETANRELATED TERMSALTERNATE TRANSLATIONS

ultimately trueparamarthasatyaparamattha-saccadon dam bden paapparently trueultimate truth
understandingprajnapannashes rabknowing, pristine awarenesswisdom; discernment; intelligence
unrestricted  ma ‘gags paempty, clearunimpeded, unobstructed

V
SANSKRITPALITIBETANRELATED TERMSALTERNATE TRANSLATIONS

Vajrayanavajrayana rdor rje’i theg paDiamond Way; Vajra vehicle; secret mantra vehicle
vowsamvara sdom pacommitment

W
SANSKRITPALITIBETANRELATED TERMSALTERNATE TRANSLATIONS

will  ‘jug pa’i semsintention 
working hardviryaviriyabrtson ‘grussix perfectionseffort; diligence; enthusiasm; perseverance
working, four ways of   ecstasy, insight, compassion, power 
worldly dharmas, eightashta-laukika-dharmaattha-loka-dhamma‘jig-rten-pa’i chos-brgyadconventional successeight conventional concerns